The Indian Constitution clearly spells out the duty of the Central and State Governments to pass legislation to provide assistance to maintain individual or family income or to provide income when some or all sources of income are disrupted or terminated as in the case of sickness, maternity, disability, unemployment or retirement or when heavy expenditures have to be incurred (e.g education, medical expenses, marriage or funeral expenses).
The Supreme Court of India directed the Government to include the domestic workers in the proposed Unorganized Workers’ Social Security Act. Accordingly, The Unorganized Workers’ Social Security Act, 2008, enacted by the Parliament in December 2008, included the domestic workers in no. 2 (n) of the Act. The Act stipulated the constitution of Welfare Boards, which would provide social welfare benefits like family medical insurance, assistance towards education and marriage of children and pension in old age to registered domestic workers.
Currently, State Social Security Boards have been set up for unorganized labour in 11 states and Union Territories. These include Karnataka, Chandigarh, West Bengal, Assam, Orissa, Gujarat, Andaman & Nicobar, Tripura, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh. Separate Domestic Welfare Boards have been established in Maharashtra, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Jharkhand.
During 2020, 9430 workers were registered with Domestic Workers’ Welfare Boards and Unorganised Workers’ Welfare Boards and 5049 workers benefited from social welfare schemes.